This post covers how to create arrays using arrayfire-rb, perform elementwise operations like addition, multiplication, etc. and how these functions have been implemented by creating Ruby bindings to ArrayFire C API.

ArrayFire for Ruby stores arrays upto 4 dimension in the Af_Array class.

The speedup achieved is outstanding.

Alt Matrix Addition (Note: The above benchmarks have been done on an AMD FX 8350 octacore processor and Nvidia GTX 750Ti GPU.)

The figure shows that ArrayFire takes the least computation time of all. ArrayFire is 10,000 times faster than NMatrix for Ruby whereas 1,000 times faster than NMatrix for JRuby.

Lets take a look at the implementation.

Initialization

An Af_Array expects the number of dimensions( ndims ), size of array along each dimension(dimension) and the elements(elements).

Af_Array class is created under the ArrayFire module using rb_define_class_under(). Next, I have added arf_alloc function using rb_define_alloc_func that allocates memory to Af_Array and is run everytime Af_Array#new is called. arf_alloc works along with arf_init that accepts parameters from Ruby call and calls C to create an af_array. ArrayFire C apis use af_array pointer to store an array.

The methods for elemetwise operations have also been implemented using rb_define_method.

void Init_arrayfire() {
  ArrayFire = rb_define_module("ArrayFire");

  Af_Array = rb_define_class_under(ArrayFire, "Af_Array", rb_cObject);
  rb_define_alloc_func(Af_Array, arf_alloc);
  rb_define_method(Af_Array, "initialize", (METHOD)arf_init, -1);

  rb_define_method(Af_Array, "+",(METHOD)arf_ew_add,1);
  rb_define_method(Af_Array, "-",(METHOD)arf_ew_subtract,1);
  rb_define_method(Af_Array, "*",(METHOD)arf_ew_multiply,1);
  rb_define_method(Af_Array, "/",(METHOD)arf_ew_divide,1);

}

To store an Af_Array, I have create an afstruct that stores the af_array pointer. arf_init(int argc, VALUE* argv, VALUE self) can take any number of arguments and self is used to bind the afstruct to an Af_Array object.

The Ruby C APIs uses VALUE to pass around pointers. I have casted all the VALUE types to the C types expected by ArrayFire C API. NUM2LONG and NUM2DBL have been used to convert the VALUE to long and double respectively.

Once, I have the ndims, dimensions and elements, I can use af_create_array to create an array. afstruct->carray points to the array and the array can be accessed anytime by using this pointer.

The point to note here is that all the data is on GPU now and hence, the time and resources for copying data from GPU to CPU is taken care of. It may not be clear now but it will be pivotal in the blogs to come when I interface mixed_models with arrayfire.


typedef struct AF_STRUCT
{
  af_array carray;
}afstruct;

VALUE arf_init(int argc, VALUE* argv, VALUE self)
{
  afstruct* afarray;
  Data_Get_Struct(self, afstruct, afarray);
  dim_t ndims = (dim_t)NUM2LONG(argv[0]);
  dim_t* dimensions = (dim_t*)malloc(ndims * sizeof(dim_t));
  dim_t count = 1;
  for (size_t index = 0; index < ndims; index++) {
    dimensions[index] = (dim_t)NUM2LONG(RARRAY_AREF(argv[1], index));
    count *= dimensions[index];
  }
  float* host_array = (float*)malloc(count * sizeof(float));
  for (size_t index = 0; index < count; index++) {
    host_array[index] = (float)NUM2DBL(RARRAY_AREF(argv[2], index));
  }

  af_create_array(&afarray->carray, host_array, ndims, dimensions, f32);

  af_print_array(afarray->carray);

  return self;
}


static VALUE arf_alloc(VALUE klass)
{
  /* allocate */
  afstruct* af = ALLOC(afstruct);
  /* wrap */
  return Data_Wrap_Struct(klass, NULL, arf_free, af);
}


So, now I can check if the bindings work successfully.

$ rake pry
pry -r './lib/arrayfire.rb'
[1] pry(main)> a = ArrayFire::Af_Array.new 2, [2,2],[1,2,3,4]
No Name Array
[2 2 1 1]
   Offsets: [0 0 0 0]
   Strides: [1 2 4 4]
    1.0000     3.0000
    2.0000     4.0000

=> #<ArrayFire::Af_Array:0x000000020aeab8>
[2] pry(main)>

(Note: ArrayFire stores array in column-major format.)

Voila! It works.

Elementwise operations

The following code snippets show how I implemented elemetwise operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

I have created macros DEF_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSOR and DECL_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSORthat define and declare the functions. The function names call the corresponding ArrayFire API.

e.g. Af_Array#+ calls arf_ew_add which is responsible for calling af_add.


#define DEF_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSOR(name, oper)                          \
static VALUE arf_ew_##name(VALUE left_val, VALUE right_val) {              \
  afstruct* left;                                                          \
  afstruct* right;                                                         \
  afstruct* result = ALLOC(afstruct);                                      \
  Data_Get_Struct(left_val, afstruct, left);                               \
  Data_Get_Struct(right_val, afstruct, right);                             \
  af_##oper(&result->carray,  left->carray, right->carray, true);          \
  af_print_array(result->carray);                                          \
  return Data_Wrap_Struct(CLASS_OF(left_val), NULL, arf_free, result);     \
}


#define DECL_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSOR(name)                               \
static VALUE arf_ew_##name(VALUE left_val, VALUE right_val);

DECL_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSOR(add)
DECL_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSOR(subtract)
DECL_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSOR(multiply)
DECL_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSOR(divide)

DEF_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSOR(add, add)
DEF_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSOR(subtract, sub)
DEF_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSOR(multiply, mul)
DEF_ELEMENTWISE_RUBY_ACCESSOR(divide, div)

Now, we can check the elementwise operations using pry.


$ rake pry
pry -r './lib/arrayfire.rb'
[1] pry(main)> a = ArrayFire::Af_Array.new 2, [2,2],[1,2,3,4]
No Name Array
[2 2 1 1]
   Offsets: [0 0 0 0]
   Strides: [1 2 4 4]
    1.0000     3.0000
    2.0000     4.0000

=> #<ArrayFire::Af_Array:0x000000020a3e38>
[2] pry(main)> b = a + a
No Name Array
[2 2 1 1]
   Offsets: [0 0 0 0]
   Strides: [1 2 4 4]
    2.0000     6.0000
    4.0000     8.0000

=> #<ArrayFire::Af_Array:0x000000020625c8>
[3] pry(main)> b = a * a
No Name Array
[2 2 1 1]
   Offsets: [0 0 0 0]
   Strides: [1 2 4 4]
    1.0000     9.0000
    4.0000    16.0000

=> #<ArrayFire::Af_Array:0x00000001fe6f90>

It works!

Lets check it for 4 dimensional matrices

$ rake pry
pry -r './lib/arrayfire.rb'
[1] pry(main)> a = ArrayFire::Af_Array.new 4, [2,2,2,2], [1,2,3,4,
                                                          5,6,7,8,
                                                          9,10,11,12,
                                                          13,14,15,16]
No Name Array
[2 2 2 2]
   Offsets: [0 0 0 0]
   Strides: [1 2 4 8]
    1.0000     3.0000
    2.0000     4.0000

    5.0000     7.0000
    6.0000     8.0000


    9.0000    11.0000
   10.0000    12.0000

   13.0000    15.0000
   14.0000    16.0000



=> #<ArrayFire::Af_Array:0x000000016c7a40>
[2] pry(main)> b = a + a
No Name Array
[2 2 2 2]
   Offsets: [0 0 0 0]
   Strides: [1 2 4 8]
    2.0000     6.0000
    4.0000     8.0000

   10.0000    14.0000
   12.0000    16.0000


   18.0000    22.0000
   20.0000    24.0000

   26.0000    30.0000
   28.0000    32.0000



=> #<ArrayFire::Af_Array:0x00000001686f18>

Hence, Af_Array can successfully handle arrays upto 4 dimesnions.

Conclusion

ArrayFire for Ruby can successfully create arrays on GPU using Af_Array class and supports elementwise binary operations. Similarly, I have implemented elementwise unary operations like Af_Array#sin Af_Array#erfc.

In the next blog post, I will explain about the test-suite and Algorithm class.